Multiomics single-cell analysis of human pancreatic islets reveals novel cellular states in health and type 1 diabetes
Fasolino, M., Schwartz, G.W., Golson, M.L., Wang, Y.J., Morgan, A., Chengyang Liu, C., Schug, J., Liu, J., Wu, M., Traum, D., Kondo, A., May, C.L., Goldman, N., Wang, W., the HPAP Consortium, Feldman, M., Moore, J.H., Japp, A.S., Betts, M.R., Faryabi, R.B., Naji, A., Kaestner, K.H., Vahedi, G.
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease of only partially defined etiology in which immune cells destroy insulin-producing beta cells. Using single-cell transcriptomics and an advanced analytical strategy to assess pancreatic islets of T1D, autoantibody-positive, and non-diabetic organ donors, we identified both canonical cell types and rare insulin-expressing cells with a hybrid mixture of endocrine and exocrine gene signatures within all donors. We further found elevated expression of MHC Class II pathway genes in exocrine ductal cells of T1D donors, which we confirmed through CyTOF, in situ imaging mass cytometry, and immunofluorescence analysis. Taken together, our multimodal analyses identify novel cell types and processes that may contribute to T1D immunopathogenesis and provide new cellular and molecular insights into human pancreas function.