Aberrant TNF signaling in pancreatic lymph nodes of patients with Type 1 Diabetes

Abedi Maryam*, Rai Priyadarshini*, Zhou Yeqiao*, Liu Chengyang, Johnson Isabelle, Chandra Aditi, Fasolino Maria, Rostami Susan, Kaestner Klaus, Naji Ali, Faryabi# Robert, Vahedi# Golnaz. * co-first authors, # corresponding authors



The therapeutic landscape for Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is rapidly changing as ongoing clinical trials aim to delay beta-cell loss by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines. However, the precise timing and cellular contexts of cytokine dysregulation remains unknown. We generated the largest existing measurement of gene expression and chromatin accessibility in ~1 million immune cells from the pancreatic lymph nodes and spleens of 34 T1D and non-diabetic organ donors. Our study revealed heightened gene activity of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) pathway and subsequent chromatin remodeling in central memory CD4+ T cells residing in the pancreatic lymph nodes of T1D and non-diabetic islet-autoantibody positive donors. These findings, validated in mice, offer a mechanism underlying the efficacy of TNF inhibitors, currently undergoing clinical trials to delay T1D onset.